Papaver.] FLOKA. INDICA. 249 sum, oleosum. Eiribryo parvus, hilum versus albumine inclusus; edty- ledonibus 1-4, plerumque 2, radicula ab hilo remota centrifuga. "We commence with. Papaveracea the series of polypetalous Tlialamijtora with consolidated carpels, parietal placentation, and anthers not adnate with the filament to that degree that they are in all the previously described families. Its affinities are not doubtful: they have been alluded to under Nymphaacea and Berberidea, but are so much more nearly related to the following Orders, Fumariacea, Cru,cifera> and Capparideee, that they are by some authors included with them into one great alliance, the Itkceades of Endlicher and Meisuer. Endlicher unites Fumanacece and Papaveracea into one Order, and Brongniart classes them together as Papaverinetp. Hypecoum, indeed, amongst Fumariacer, being quite intermediate in structure, is the connecting link between these Orders, and Platystemon, a Papaveraceous gecus with free ovaries, is the passage between the two groups of apocarpous and syucarpous families, more especially showing the affinity of Papaveracea with Nymphceacea on the one hand, and with Ranunculacea on the other. "With Cntcifera this Order is allied not only by the structure of the fruit of many species, but by the quaternary arrangement of the sepals and petals. Papaveracea are almost entirely natives of the northern hemisphere and of extra- tropical regions. They are numerous in Northern India, but attain their maximum in western North America. Their properties arc narcotic, and their seeds usually yield a bland oil. 1. PAPAVER, L. Sepala 2, rarius 3, coneava. Petala 4, rarius 6. Stamina indefinita. Ovarium e carpellis 4 v. pluribus, stigmatibus radiantibus coronatum. Capsuld placentis parietalibus in cavitatem projectis polysperma, poris v. valvis brevibus infra stigmata dehiscens.—Herbse succo lacteo, sape hispid^ radicibus^rasw, i^& plerumque lobatis dentatis%ue> pedunculis axillaribus solitariis unifloris nudis. About twelve species of Papaver are kuown, of which all but P. nueUcaule are confined to the Old World, and almost entirely*to the north temperate zone, one only being found in Australia, and another in South Africa. 1. P. imdicfrale (Linn. Sp. PL 725); scapo unifloro, flore croceo. —Elfaut, Monog. Pap-17 5 ^^ 3°** Map. t. 1633; DO. Syst. ii. 71, JProd, i. 117. P. alpinum, Lim. Sp. PL 7^5; Led. m. Ross. i. 87; DC. I, c.' P. Pyrenaicum, DC. t, c., et P. microcaipum, DC. I. c. P. auran- tiacuin, Lois.; DC. Fl. $r. Suppl. 585. P. croceum, Led. M. Alt. ii. 271, HAB. Hbetia occidentalis alpina: in summis montibus Ladak et Nubra, alt. 16-17,000 ped.l Afghanistan, 15,000 ped., Griff.!— (Fl. Aug.) (v. v.) DISTEIB. Per totam zonam arcticam ad lat. bor. 78°! in alpibna Korvegifie! Helvetia! Pyrenseis 1 Dahuriae! et Altai! in montibus sco- pulosis America borealis I Spithamseum v. pedale. Folia radicalia petiolata, 2-4-pollicaria, Imeari-obovata v, oblonga, pinnatifida, lobis pauois oblongis acutis utrinq[ue pilosis. Scapi 3-5, gra- ciles, patentim hispido-pilosi. Floret 1-3 poll diarn. Sepala hirsuta. Filamenta capillaria. Gapsula late obovata, strigoso-hispida, stigmnte yrofunde inciao. We have followed Elkan in uniting the P. alpinum, nudtcaute, Pyrcnafam, ero- ceum and aurantiacum, amongst which we can find no speciEc characters, Our Tibetan specimens perfectly accord with Arctic American and Siberian ones.